INTRODUCTION: “Painting in the Southern Breeze: The Artist Room of CHEN Cheng-Po, KUO Po-Chuan, HSU Wu-Yung and SHEN Che-Tsai”
In order to compose the development of local art and to refine Taiwan’s aesthetic characteristics, the museum has set up “ The Artist Room” to focus on the historical contributions of predecessors. The exhibition “ Painting in the Southern Breeze” introduced artists CHEN Cheng-Po, KUO Po-Chuan, HSU Wu-Yung and SHEN Che-Tsai to the world, by showing their exploration of modern painting, and the process of integrating their own cultural heritage with Western practices to define the significance of locality.
陳澄波（1895 – 1947）傳奇的一生，經歷臺灣日治時期的五十個年頭，他在極短的時間內歷經巨大文化衝擊，經由居住、旅遊、活動在臺灣、日本、中國的許多區域，將自然風景與人文景觀具體地表現在藝術創作中。自喻為「油彩化身」的他，除了揮舞彩筆為他熱愛的臺灣炎方風土，留下一幅幅情感馥郁的紀念，亦不遺餘力提攜後進，為臺灣美術的發展做出良多貢獻。
郭柏川（1901 – 1974）遠赴東瀛東京美校（1928 – 1933）師事岡田三郎助（1869 – 1939），並積極參與赤島社、光風會展和臺展。此時期他跟著岡田老師學習時興的藝術潮流現代主義，日本式印象派— 外光派，在畫面注重光影變化的影響下，以趨近幾何化的造形結構，展現空間深度，具有均衡而不失活潑的穩定性。留日時期，郭柏川也曾於返臺期間，對景寫生畫出陽光下家鄉生活，他選擇陽光燦爛照耀的暖色系，隨著建築人物特徵採取豐富和諧而穩定的色塊面，傳達對臺南廟宇與其街景、人文的濃郁情感。
1 9 3 3 年畢業後，郭柏川至中國北平教書，多次陪同畫藝已臻成熟的梅原龍三郎到處寫生。也隨同校任教亦師亦友的黃賓虹及其他收藏家，廣泛接觸水墨畫，嘗試將油畫改畫在宣紙上，大膽自由的筆觸與對比用色的嘗試，使作品呈現多彩且層次豐富的線條趣味。
戰後返台的郭柏川於1 9 5 0 年受聘當時臺灣省立工學院建築系，生活終於安定。此時期的創作因改用松節油調和油彩並繪於宣紙之上，畫面變得明亮且色彩透明。他以宣紙彩繪裸女油畫，色彩簡淡卻引人遐思；以青色彩繪，係來自對青花瓷的偏好。對照青花釉裡紅、五彩、粉彩等瓷器紋飾色調，會發現他作品許多彩瓷釉色清明而豐富。郭柏川從傳統水墨畫或瓷器彩繪的線性主題，襯以青色光影及彩瓷釉般的淺淡多彩色面，描繪故鄉景觀建築之餘，也從水果、魚等靜物畫中傳達日常生活的恬淡之情。
許武勇出生於日治中期，以優異的成績考取臺北高等學校，習畫師從同校美術教師鹽月桃甫（1886 – 1954）。中學畢業後赴日趨美陸續完成醫學學位，求學及醫生執業期間創作不輟且屢次獲得省展佳績，1951年更贏得臺陽展首獎，是開創臺灣美術立體派重要的先驅畫家。
沈哲哉（1926 – 2017）出生於臺南新營，八歲向洪明凱老師習畫，從此對繪畫產生濃厚的興趣。他就讀臺南州立第二中學時，接受廖繼春的繪畫指導，於1943年以〈明倫堂より（明倫堂外）〉入選第六回府展，之後也曾參與「臺陽展」。
The Flaming Tone of Colors—CHEN Cheng-Po
CHEN Cheng-Po’s (1895-1947) legendary life spanned 50 years of Japanese occupation of Taiwan. In an extremely short period of time, he experienced dramatic cultural impact and was able to personally experience the various natural and cultural landscapes, all of which he directly and concretely expressed in his artwork. Calling himself the “incarnation of oil painting,” he not only used his paintings to leave numerous emotionally rich commemorations for his beloved Taiwan, but also did his best to advance his field and contribute to the development and continuity of Taiwan’s art.
In April 1913, CHEN Cheng-Po was admitted to the Teachers’ Department, Taipei Governor’s Office Mandarin School (now National Taipei University of Education) and studied under the tutelage of Japanese painter Ishikawa Kinichiro. In 1924, CHEN was accepted into the Tokyo University of the Arts. In 1926, his Streets of Chiayi, was nominated for Japan’s 7th Imperial Art Exhibition. He became the first person in Taiwan to have an oil painting displayed at said exhibition.
From 1928 to 1933 CHEN Cheng-Po stayed in China. Female nude is another important artistic breakthrough for CHEN while he lived in Shanghai. In June 1933, CHEN moved back to Taiwan because the political situation in Shanghai became unstable. During the post-war era in the 1940s, CHEN regularly visited LIAO Chi-Chun, who taught at the Private Chang Jung Girls’ Senior High School in Tainan, and the two often painted together on campus. Courtyard in Sin-Lau (1941) not only elaborated local conditions in southern Taiwan, but also recorded the shared historical memories between CHEN and LIAO as well as enriched the cultural map that CHEN wove. Although the 228 Incident ended his life, his achievements and hard work in promoting Taiwan’s artistic development cannot be overlooked.
Vivid Scenery of Light—KUO Po-Chuan
KUO Po-Chuan (1901-1974) moved to Japan to learn Western paintings after being accepted into the Tokyo University of the Arts (1928-1933).He learned under the tutelage of Okada Saburōsuke (1869-1939) and exhibited his works by participating in Koufu-kai and Akajimasha. During this period, he learned the Japanese contemporary Impressionism art trend of the time (i.e., Pleinairism) with Okada Saburōsuke. KUO focused on Light and shadow in his paintings. His paintings also have a geometric composition that realistically expresses spatial depth. Rich, harmonious, and stable color were chosen based on building and human characteristics.
After his graduation in 1933, KUO Po-Chuan taught in Beijing. He accompanied Umehara Ryūzaburō (1888-1986) on painting trips. KUO also came in contact with Chinese ink color by associating with his colleague and friend HUANG Bin-Hong and other collectors. Consequently, KUO changed his oil painting media from canvas to rice paper and developed rich layers of colorful lines.
KUO Po-Chuan’s life finally settled down after he was hired as a teacher in the Architecture Department of the Taiwan Institute of Technology (now Tainan’s National Cheng Kung University) in 1950. During this period, KUO’s paintings have a transparent quality because he mixed oil with turpentine and painted on rice paper. He often painted nude females with this technique. He used the color blue in his paintings because he loved blue and white porcelains. If we look at the color tone and lines of underglaze red, wucai, and fencai in porcelains, we can see that the porcelain glaze is rich in color and Light in tone. KUO used traditional Chinese ink and porcelain painting line techniques as well as the Light colors used in porcelain glaze to express his beloved still-life fruit and local landscape works.
The Pursuit of Painting Wearing a White Coat—HSU Wu-Yung
HSU Wu-Yung (1920-2016) was born under the Japanese Rule period and later accepted into the Taipei School for Higher Education. There, he learned painting from Shiotsuki Tōho (1886-1954). After graduating, he went to Japan to complete his medical degree. During his studies and doctoral practice, he continued to produce works and had great showings in provincial exhibitions. In 1951, he won the first place in the Tai-Yang Exhibition to become an important pioneer in Taiwan’s Cubism.
In junior high school, HSU Wu-Yung attempted to use Cubism techniques to create his own paintings, which were exhibited in Taipei School of Higher Education’s opening commemorative exhibition. In his different Cubism expressions, he stacked color blocks and objects together to present similar color series in a consistent patchwork fashion. This resembled the analytical Cubism style. The serene and idyllic country life of his painting is a beautiful image from his childhood. Rational observations and learning the specialization of each painting style were HSU’s creative characteristics.
HSU Wu-Yung was also a flower lover. His early works contained many flowers and vase-related still-lifes. Young women, goddesses, and other female images were often added to his later works. He explained that the young woman he added to his flower paintings represented his ideal image of a beautiful and peaceful world. He integrated Eastern elements and a Romanticism style full of surrealism in an attempt to escape the constraints of realism. He used his paintings to inspire the harmonious concepts of goodness and beauty.
As HSU Wu-Yung reached his later years, his paintings no longer focus on nostalgic country impressionism of the past. Gradually, his topics extended to contemporary life. After 2000, his paintings revolved around people’s everyday life, such as Tainan’s religious culture and contented daily life.
Bold Colors in Dream—SHEN Che-Tsai
SHEN Che-Tsai (1926-2017) was born in Xinying, Tainan. At the age of eight, he learned painting from HONG Ming-Kai. While he attended the National Tainan Second Senior High School, he learned under the tutelage of LIAO Chi-Chun. In 1943, SHEN’s Outside of Minglun Hall was selected for the 6th Taiwan Governmental Art Exhibition.
SHEN Che-Tsai had the dream of going to Japan to study painting. However, that dream could not be realized because of the war. Yet, he did not give up on art. While he taught in school, he received strict sketching training from KUO Po-Chuan. After changing several styles and expressions, SHEN showed skillful accomplishments in both color settings and composition. He developed an acute sense for colors and beautiful situational expressions.
In addition, SHEN worked hard to learn Pleinairism, Impressionism, Fauvism, and Ecole de Paris from reading painting books on Edgar Degas, Odilon Redon, Koiso Ryōhei etc., all of whom had an impact on his expressions and feelings.
SHEN Che-Tsai was adept at using colors. His students nicknamed him “the color demon.” This was also a joke with a double entendre. The truth was that they were praising his acute sense for colors and that he was a color magician, which was difficult for normal people to comprehend. For example, he used hard edges of palette knives to apply thick layers of paint and press the paint to thin transparent layers. The colors were expressed more and more as the dry and wet overlap was processed. His most representative theme was sketching women and bringing out different styles like nudes or ballet dancers.
After WWII, SHEN Che-Tsai, KUO Po-Chuan, and other like-minded artists established the Tainan Fine Arts Association and opened a studio to cultivate artistic talents. All the while, SHEN continued to participate in art competitions with good showings. He won the admiration of the overseas Chinese businessman QIU Yong-Han, who then began to regularly sponsor him in 1974.
臺南市美術館研究典藏部 Research and Collection Department, Tainan Art Musuem
日期｜2022/01/01 ~ 2032/02/28